Discovery of India


Modern science seems to corroborate the presence of these, essences behind bodies. The world was once said to be made up of molecules or chemical substances. Further investigation revealed that molecules are not the last word and that they are made up of atoms. Research, again, proved that even the atoms are formed of certain substances, which have the character of both waves of energy and particles of force.They flow like waves and sometimes jump like particles. A great physicist has therefore preferred to designate them as ‘wavicles’. These have been named electrons, protons, neutrons, etc., according to their structure and function. Their essence is force. There is nothing but force in the universe.

There is only a continuum of energy everywhere. The Tanmatras of the Yoga system, however, are subtler than the energy of the scientist, even as the Prana is subtler than electricity. Just as behind the Prana there is the mind, behind the Tanmatras there is the Cosmic Mind. Beyond the Cosmic Mind are the Cosmic Ego and the Cosmic Intellect, the last mentioned having a special name, Mahat.

Beyond the Mahat is what is called Prakriti, in which the whole universe exists as a tree in a seed, or as effect in its cause. Transcending Prakriti is the Absolute-Consciousness, called Brahman, Paramatman and the like. So, whether we dive deep here or there, within ourselves or within the cosmos, we find the same thing-Consciousness. And the stages of manifestation in the individual correspond to those in the universe.

The purpose of Yoga is to effect a communion between the individual and cosmic structures and to realize the ultimate Reality. The Yoga places before us the goal of a union wherein infinity and eternity seem to come together.

The aim of Yoga is to raise the status of the individual to the cosmic level and to abolish the false difference between the individual and the cosmic. The cosmos includes ourselves and things. The individual is a part of the cosmos. Then, why do we make a separate reference to the individual? This is a mistake, which Yoga effectively corrects.

To regard the cosmos as an outer object would be to defy the very meaning of the cosmos. To imagine ourselves to be subjects counterposed before an object called the cosmos would be to stultify the comprehensiveness of the cosmos and to interfere with its harmony and working. The Yoga rectifies this mistake and hereby the mortal becomes the Immortal. As the individual is a part of the cosmos, this achievement should not be difficult.

The individual is not separate from the cosmic, but there seems to be some confusion in the mind of the individual which has caused an artificial isolation of itself from the rest of the universe. This confusion is called Ajnana or Avidya, which really means an absence or negation of true knowledge. Here we enter the realms of depth psychology.

From - The yoga system


And what is this deepest? The physical body, being outside as a part of the physical world, should be considered an object like the other things of the world, and it is constituted of the five elements. This material body of five elements acts as a vehicle for certain powers that work from within. Our actions are movements of these powers.

There is an energy within the body which is other than the elements. This energy is called Prana or vital force. The Prana has many functions, which are responsible for the workings of the body.

The organs of action, viz., speech (Vak), hands (Pani), feet (Pada), genitals (Upastha) and anus (Payu) are moved by the motive power of the Prana. But the Prana is a blind energy and it needs to be directed properly. We know we do not just do anything at any time, but act with some, method and intelligence.

There is a directing principle behind the Prana. We think before we act. The mind is, therefore, internal to the Prana. But thought, again, is regulated by something else. We engage ourselves in systematic thinking and follow a logical course in every form of contemplation and action.

This logical determinant of all functions in life is the intellect, which is the highest of human faculties, and it is inseparable from the principle of the ego in man. All these functions of the psychological apparatus are, however, confined to what is called the waking state.

The human being seems to be passing from this state to others, such as dream and deep sleep. Though we have some sort of an awareness in dream, we are bereft of all consciousness in deep sleep. Yet, we know that we do exist in the state of sleep. This means that we can exist without doing anything, even without thinking.

The condition of deep sleep is a paradox for psychology and is the crux of the Yoga analysis. It is strange that in sleep we do not know even our own selves, and still we know that we do exist then. An experience, pure and simple, of the nature of consciousness alone, is the constituent of deep sleep, notwithstanding that we are not aware of it due to a peculiar difficulty in which we seem to get involved there.

In deep sleep, we have consciousness not associated with objects, and hence we remain oblivious of everything external. There is, at the same time, unconsciousness of even one’s own existence due to there being the potentiality for objective perception. The result is, however, that the deepest in the individual is consciousness, which is called by such names as the Atman, Purusha, etc.

This is the real Self.Now, what is the deepest in the cosmos? We learnt that there are five elements. But this is not the whole picture of creation. There are realities within the physical universe as they are there within the individual body. If the Prana, mind, intellect, ego and finally consciousness are internal to the bodily structure, there are also tremendous truths internal to the physical universe.

Within the five gross elements there are five forces which manifest the elements. These forces are the universal causes of everything that is physical, and are called Tanmatras, a term which signifies the essence of objects.

There is such a force or power behind the elements of Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth. Sabda or sound is the force behind Ether. But this sound is, different from what we merely hear with our ears. It is the subtle principle behind the whole of Ether, on account of which the ears are capable of hearing at all.

This is sound as Tanmatra. Likewise, there are the Tanmatras of Air, Fire, Water and Earth, called respectively Sparsa or touch, Page Divine Life Society, Sivananda Ashram, India Rupa or form, Rasa or taste and Gandha or smell. These powers are subtle energies immanent in the elements constituting the physical universe.

From - The Yoga System


The ideal mantra should be rhythmical, one might even say musical; but there should be sufficient emphasis on some syllable to assist the faculty of attention. The best mantras are of medium length, so far as the beginner is concerned.

If the mantra is too long, one is apt to forget it, unless one practises very hard for a great length of time. On the other hand, mantras of a single syllable, such as "Aum," are rather jerky; the rhythmical idea is lost. Here are a few useful mantras: 1. Aum. 2. Aum Tat Sat Aum. This mantra is purely spondaic.

II. {illustration: line of music with: Aum Tat Sat Aum :under it} 3. Aum mani padme hum; two trochees between two caesuras.

III. {illustration: line of music with: Aum Ma-ni Pad-me Hum :under it}

4. Aum shivaya vashi; three trochees. Note that "shi" means rest, the absolute or male aspect of the Deity; "va" is energy, the manifested or female side of the Deity. This Mantra therefore expresses the whole course of the Universe, from Zero through the finite back to Zero. IV. {illustration: line of music with: Aum shi-va-ya Va-shi Aum shi-va-ya Vashi :under it}

5. Allah. The syllables of this are accented equally, with a certain pause between them; and are usually combined by fakirs with a rhythmical motion of the body to and fro.

6. Hua allahu alazi lailaha illa Hua. {20} Here are some longer ones:

7. The famous Gayatri. Aum! tat savitur varenyam Bhargo devasya dimahi Dhiyo yo na pratyodayat. Scan this as trochaic tetrameters.

8. Qol: Hua Allahu achad; Allahu Assamad; lam yalid walam yulad; walam yakun lahu kufwan achad.

9. This mantra is the holiest of all that are or can be. It is from the Stele of Revealing.<>

A ka dua Tuf ur biu Bi aa chefu IX. Dudu ner af an nuteru. {illustration: two lines of music with: A ka du - a Tuf ur bi - u Bi A'a che - - fu Du - du ner af an nu - te -ru :under them} Such are enough for selection.<> There are many other mantras. Sri Sabapaty Swami gives a particular one for each of the Cakkras. But let the student select one mantra and master it thoroughly.

You have not even begun to master a mantra until it continues unbroken through sleep. This is much easier than it sounds. Some schools advocate practising a mantra with the aid of instrumental music and dancing. Certainly very remarkable effects are obtained in the way of "magic" powers; whether great spiritual results are equally common is a doubtful point. Persons wishing to study them may remember that the Sahara desert is within three days of London; and no doubt the Sidi Aissawa would be glad to accept pupils. This discussion of the parallel science of mantra-yoga has led us far indeed from the subject of Pranayama. Pranayama is notably useful in quieting the emotions and appetites; and, whether by reason of the mechanical pressure which it asserts, or by the thorough combustion which it assures in the lungs, it seems to be admirable from the standpoint of health. Digestive troubles in particular are very easy to remove in this way. It purifies both the body and the lower functions of the mind,<

Emphatically. It is impossible to combine Pranayama properly performed with emotional thought. It should be resorted to immediately, at all times during life, when calm is threatened. On the whole, the ambulatory practices are more generally useful to the health than the sedentary; for in this way walking and fresh air are assured. But some of the sedentary practice should be done, and combined with meditation. Of course when actually "racing" to get results, walking is a distraction.and should be practised certainly never less than one hour daily by the serious student. Four hours is a better period, a golden mean; sixteen hours is too much for most people.



The connection between breath and mind will be fully discussed in speaking of the Magick Sword, but it may be useful to premise a few details of a practical character.

You may consult various Hindu manuals, and the writing of "K"wang Tze, for various notable theories as to method and result. But in this sceptical system one had better content one's self with statements which are not worth the trouble of doubting.

The ultimate idea of meditation being to still the mind, it may be considered a useful preliminary to still consciousness of all the functions of the body. This has been dealt with in the chapter on Asana. One may, however, mention that some Yogis carry it to the point of trying to stop the beating of the heart.

Whether this be desirable or no it would be useless to the beginner, so he will endeavour to make the breathing very slow and very regular. The rules for this practice are given in Liber CCVI. The best way to time the breathing, once some little skill has been acquired, with a watch to bear witness, is by the use of a mantra.

The mantra acts on the thoughts very much as Pranayama does upon the breath. The thought is bound down to a recurring cycle; any intruding thoughts are thrown off by the mantra, just as pieces of putty would be from a fly-wheel; and the swifter the wheel the more difficult would it be for anything to stick.

This is the proper way to practise a mantra. Utter it as loudly and slowly as possible ten times, then not quite so loudly and a very little faster ten times more. Continue this process until there is nothing but a rapid movement of the lips; this movement should be continued with increased velocity and diminishing intensity until the mental muttering completely absorbs the physical. The student is by this time absolutely still, with the mantra racing in his brain; he should, however, continue to speed it up until he reaches his limit, at which he should continue for as long as possible, and then cease the practice by reversing the process above described.

Any sentence may be used as a mantra, and possibly the Hindus are correct in thinking that there is a particular sentence best suited to any particular man. Some men might find the liquid mantras of the Quran slide too easily, so that it would be possible to continue another train of thought without disturbing the mantra; one is supposed while saying mantra to meditate upon its meaning. This suggests that the student might construct for himself a mantra which should represent the Universe in sound, as the pantacle<> should do in form. Occasionally a mantra may be "given," "i.e.," heard in some unexplained manner during a meditation.

One man, for example, used the words: "And strive to see in everything the will of God;" to another, while engaged in killing thoughts, came the words "and push it down," apparently referring to the action of the inhibitory centres which he was using. By keeping on with this he got his "result."


Mind and Meditation - Part 4

A child makes a toy-child (doll) of rags, and plays with it with motherly instincts of nursing and protection. The doll remains the same but the child develops the motherly instincts for future development and manifestation. Even so, a Bhakti in worshipping a Murty, develops devotion, Bhakti. Anugraha, Preeti, Viraha and Mahabhava and eventually Parabhakti. An aspirant can meditate on the physical form of his Guru.

Sit on Padmasana or Siddhasana in a solitary room. Close the eyes. Concentrate on the picture of Lord Vishnu in the heart. Imagine that Lord Vishnu is seated there with His four hands in the centre of a blazing sun of light, with conch, disc, mace and lotus.

Mentally visualise the picture, from head to foot as you have done in Trataka. Do mental Puja also. Offer flowers, Arghya, Sandal paste, incense; burn camphor, etc., mentally. Similarly you can meditate on Lord Siva, Krishna, Devi. Instead of concentrating at the heart, you can concentrate at the space between the two eyebrows (Trikuti). Practise this Saguna meditation for two years and then take to Nirguna meditation. You can do meditation while sitting or standing or walking. For beginners a sitting posture is necessary. Repeat your Guru Mantra or the Mantra of the Ishta Devata mentally. Associate the ideas of purity, infinity, eternity, immortality, Vyapaka, Paripurna, Sat-Chit-Ananda, Akhanda, Advaita, Chidakasa, etc., with Om repetition.


Samadhi is deep sleep with the full knowledge of the Self. You get this sleepless sleep when you have burnt the five Jnana Indriyas in the fire of Wisdom, when you have extricated yourself from the clutches of Avidya, Maya or ignorance and when you have controlled all desires. Tadevartha matranirbhasam Svarupa Soonyameva Samadhi —Patanjali Yoga Sutra.

Samadhi Samathovastha Jeevatma Paramatmano —Dattatreya Samhita. This is not a state of nothingness but a state of “everythingness.” You enter into a state of Absolute Awareness, in which time and place disappear; every place is here; every period of time is ‘now’; and everything is “I”. In this state you have obtained Bliss and Eternal Life. During cosmic consciousness, you are in touch with universal knowledge and life.

The Divine principle flows through you. Your little, individual personality is lost. Your individual will has become merged in the cosmic will or Ishvara’s will. You are aware of the oneness of life. You have the one consciousness—CHINMAYA—that the universe is filled with one life, that the universe is full of life. You have Tattva Jnana and you see the real universe, which is the essence or background of the universe of Matter, Energy and Mind. You are in a state of Bliss and Ecstasy beyond understanding and description. This is a cognitive trace or Turiya Avastha where Triputi (knowledge, knowable and knower) exists.
Philosophy Of Sleep

Study the condition of Sushupti Avastha or Jada Nidra, the state of deep sleep. There is neither the play of the mind nor the play of the Indriyas. There are no objects. There is neither attraction nor repulsion (Raga, Dvesha). Wherefrom do you derive the Ananda in sleep? The experience in sleep is universal. There is no difference of opinion here. Everyone says: “I slept soundly. I knew nothing. I was very happy in sleep.” During deep sleep you rest in Sat-Chit-Ananda Atman and enjoy the Atmic bliss which is independent of object.

The difference between deep sleep and Samadhi is that in deep sleep there is the veil of ignorance and in Samadhi this veil is removed. You draw four conclusions from sleep: (1) You exist. There is feeling of continuity of consciousness. (2) There is Advaita. (3) You are Ananda Svarupa. (4) The world is Mithya. Names and forms are illusory. The world is a mere play of the mind. It is only a phenomenal appearance.

When there is mind, there is world. If you can produce Manonasa (destruction of the mind) consciously through Yoga Sadhana, the world will disappear. You will feel the Atman everywhere. Even in the day time, you become one with the Atman whenever a desire is gratified. When you enjoy an object you become mindless (Amana) for a short time. You rest in your own Atman and enjoy the Atmic Bliss (spiritual Ananda). Ignorant persons attribute the happiness to the objects. Just as the dog which sucks a dry bone, foolishly imagines that blood comes from the dry bone,whereas in reality the blood oozes out of its own palate, so also foolish persons imagine that the happiness comes from external objects, while they actually derive the happiness from their own Atman within. They are deluded owing to the force of Maya and Avidya.

Mind and Meditation - Part 3

At the initial stage of practice you can concentrate on the tick-tick sound of a watch, the flame of a candle or any other object which is pleasing to the mind. This is concrete concentration. There is no concentration without something at which the mind may rest. The mind can easily be fixed on any object which is pleasing. It is very difficult to fix the mind in the beginning on an object which it dislikes.

Sit on lotus-pose, Padmasana, with crossed legs. Fix the gaze on the tip of the nose. This is called nasal gaze. Do not make any strained effort. Gently look at the tip of the nose. Practise for one minute in the beginning. Gradually increase to 30 minutes or one hour. This practice steadies the mind. It develops the power of concentration. Even when you walk in the streets keep up this practice.

Sit on lotus-pose with crossed legs or in “perfected pose” (Siddhasana) in your meditation room and practise fixing the mind at the junction of the eyebrows gently for half a minute. Then gradually increase the period to half an hour. There must not be the least strain in this practice. This practice removes the restlessness of mind and develops concentration.

This is known as the frontal gaze because the eyes are directed towards the frontal bone of the forehead. You can select either the nasal gaze or the frontal gaze according to your temperament and capacity. If you want to increase your power of concentration you will have to reduce your worldly activities. You will have to observe the vow of silence every day for two hours or more. Practise concentration till the mind is well established on the object of concentration. When the mind runs away from the object bring it back again.

When concentration is deep and intense, the senses cannot operate. He who practises perfect concentration for three hours daily will have tremendous psychic powers. He will have a strong will-power.

There was a workman who used to manufacture arrows. Once he was very busy at his work. He was so much absorbed in his work that he could not notice even the big party of a King and his retinue passing in front of his shop. Such must be the nature of your concentration when you fix your mind on God. You must have the idea of God and God alone. No doubt, it takes some time to have complete concentration or attain one-pointedness of mind.

You will have to struggle very hard to have a single-minded concentration. Even if the mind runs outside during your practice in meditation do not bother. Allow it to run. Slowly try to bring it to your object of concentration. By repeated practice the mind will be finally focussed on your heart, on the Self, the Indweller of your heart—-the final goal of life.

In the beginning the mind may run out 80 times. After six months it may run 70 times; within a year it may run 50 times; within two years it may run 30 times; in five years it may be completely fixed in the Divine Consciousness. Then it will not run out at all even if you try your best to bring it out. It will be like a wandering bull which used to run to the gardens of neighbours for grazing but which now eats fresh grain and extract of cotton seeds in its own resting place.


Meditation is an unbroken uninterrupted or incessant flow of the idea of the object that is concentrated upon. If you close your eyes when you do Trataka and mentally visualise the picture of the object of Trataka, it is concrete meditation or Saguna meditation. Concrete meditation on an object is necessary for an untrained mind, in the beginning. If you meditate on an abstract idea, it will constitute Nirguna meditation.

For beginners whose minds are engrossed in and filled with passions and impurities, meditation on a form is absolutely necessary. A Murty or any concrete form such as a Pratima is indispensable during meditation or Japa. Without undergoing a course of concrete meditation in the beginning, especially for the ordinary type of people, it is absolutely impossible to start Nirguna meditation at the very outset.

The vast majority of aspirants commit a serious mistake in jumping to Nirguna meditation all at once. They will only break their legs. The mind is so framed as it demands a form to cling to. Meditation on a Murty, i.e., a stone-image remains the stone as it is, but the devotion of the devotee goes to the Lord. He is pleased.

Divine Grace will surely descend. You will have to superimpose the attributes of God on the stone-image. You will have to imagine that there is the Antaratman hidden in the image, the all-pervading, indwelling presence, the pure consciousness, the Chaitanya at the back of it.

From - Yoga In Daily Life

Mind and Meditation - Part 2

Yellow silken cloth the Pitambara, then to the golden Hara, the gem on the breast, then ear-ring, then the face, then the crown on the head, then the bracelets on the arm, then the disc in the right upper hand, then the conch in the left upper hand, then the Gada or mace in the left lower hand. This is the order. Then come down to the feet and start again to the upper parts. Do like this again and again. Whenever the mind runs away, fix it again and again, just as Lord Krishna says in the Gita VI-25:

“Yato yato nischarati manaschanchalamasthiram
Tatastato niyamyaitadatmanyeva vasam nayet.”

The conch representsO Mor Sabdha Brahman. The disk is the destroyer of the evil Vrittis or Vasanas, the mace represents the emblem of sovereignty, the lotus at the feet represents the world or universe. At the outset, you can do Trataka, after taking Asana, on a fine black point on the wall in front for 10 minutes. Slowly increase the time. Have a steady uninterrupted gaze on the dot without closing the eyes.

You can also do Trataka after closing the two ears with your two thumbs, on the Anahat sound that rises from the Akasa of the heart. This will lead to actual Laya, in the long run. Then you can do Trataka on Lord Vishnu, Siva, Krishna or any other Murthy.

Trataka practice gives tremendous power and removes a host of opthalmic ailments (eye troubles) and bestows Divya Drishti.

Practice Of Concentration

Fix the mind on some object either inside or outside the body. Keep it steady there for some time. This is concentration. You will have to practise this daily. Purify the mind first through the practice of right conduct and then take to the practice of concentration. Concentration without purity is of no use. There are some occultists who have concentration; but they have no good character.

This is the reason why they do not make any progress in the spiritual path. He who has a steady posture and has purified the nerves and the vital sheath by the constant practice of control of breath will be able to concentrate easily. Concentration will be intense if you remove all distractions. A celibate who has preserved his energy will have wonderful concentration. Some foolish, impatient students take to concentration at once without any preliminary ethical training. This is a serious blunder. Ethical perfection is of paramount importance. You can concentrate internally on any one of the seven centres of spiritual energy.

Attention plays a prominent part in concentration. He who has developed his powers of attention will have good concentration. A man who is full of passion and all sorts of desires, can never concentrate on any object even for a short period. His mind will be restless like that of a monkey. A scientist concentrates his mind and invents many things. Through concentration he opens the layers of the gross mind and penetrates deeply into the higher regions of the mind and gets deeper knowledge. He concentrates the energies of his mind and focuses them on the materials he is analysing and finds out their secrets.

He who has gained abstraction (withdrawing the senses from the objects) will have good concentration. You will have to pass on the spiritual path step by step, stage by stage. To start with, lay the foundation of right conduct, postures, regulation of breath, and abstraction. The superstructure of concentration and meditation will be successful only then.

You should be able to visualise the object of concentration very clearly even though it is not there. You must form the mental picture at a moment’s notice. If you have good concentration you can do this without much difficulty.

From - Yoga In Daily Life

Higher Consciousness